中国历史文化事件年表(From Oxford Dictionaries)

中国历史文化事件年表(A chronology of historical and cultural events in China)– From Oxford Dictionaries。

约 170 万年前 元谋人生活在云南元谋一带,开始直立行走,捕猎为生,能打造石器,可能已会使用火。

1.7 million years ago (approx.). Yuanmou Man (Homo erectus yuanmouensis) lived in the Yuanmou region of Yunnan. Began to walk upright, hunted for a living, could make stone implements and possibly make use of fire.

约 70-20 万年前 北京人生活在北京周口店一带,群居于洞穴中, 以采集和狩猎为生,会使用石器和骨器。

700,000-200,000 years ago (approx.). Peking Man (Homo erectus pekinensis) lived in the Zhoukoudian area of Beijing. Lived in groups in caves as hunter-gatherers, could make stone and bone implements.

约 1.8 万年前 山顶洞人开始氏族公社的生活,按母系血统确立亲属关系,共同劳动,共同分配食物,以采集狩猎为生,会捕鱼,能人工取火。

18,000 years ago (approx.). Upper Cave Man began to live in communal, matriarchal kinship groups. Worked together, hunted and gathered for a living, and shared food. Could catch fish and make fire.

约 5,000-7,000 年前 河姆渡、半坡母系氏族公社时期,以种植水稻为主,兼营畜牧、采集、渔猎,会制陶和建筑房屋、酿酒等。

5,000-7,000 years ago (approx.). Hemudu and Banpo matriarchal communities. Planted rice and raised livestock, gathered plants, fished and hunted. Could make pottery, build houses and brew beer.

约 4,000-5,000 年前 大汶口文化中晚期,父系氏族公社时期,能制造精美工具及陶器,以农业生产为主,兼营畜牧、狩猎和捕鱼业。原始文字符号开始出现。

4,000-5,000 years ago (approx.). The middle and later period of the Dawenkou culture. A patriarchal community, with the ability to create fine tools and pottery. Mainly agricultural, they also raised livestock and hunted and fished. Appearance of the first written symbols.

约 4,000 多年前 传说中的炎帝、黄帝、尧、舜、禹时期,推广耕作农业,出现了国家职能的社会管理机构。

Over 4,000 years ago (approx.). The period of the five legendary emperors Yandi, Huangdi, Yao, Shun, and Yu. The emergence of farming techniques and a national social management structure.

约公元前 21 世纪 夏朝建立。中国进入奴隶社会时期。夏朝时创立了历法。

21st century BC (approx.). The founding of the Xia Dynasty. The beginning of the slave system in China. The calendar system was created.

约公元前 17 世纪 商朝建立。发明了文字,出现了甲骨文、瓷器,也是青铜文化的灿烂时期。

17th century BC (approx.). The founding of the Shang Dynasty. The invention of writing, the appearance of oracle bone inscriptions, porcelain and magnificent bronzeware.

公元前 1046 年 周朝建立。实行井田制,农业发达,发明冶铁技术。

1046 BC. The founding of the Zhou Dynasty. The beginning of the well-field system, the development of agriculture, and the invention of iron-smelting.

公元前 841 年 发生国人暴动,共和行政。中国历史开始有确切纪年。

841 BC. Insurrections and Gonghe administration. Chinese history began to be accurately recorded.

公元前 722 年 编年体史书《春秋》采用干支记日。这是世界上使用时间最长的记日法。

722 BC. The Spring and Autumn Annals used the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches to record days. This is the oldest method in the world used to record time.

公元前约 571 年 老子出生。他的《道德经》阐述了朴素的辩证法思想,成为道家主要经典。

571 BC (approx.). Birth of Laozi. His Tao Te Ching expounded simple dialectical thought, becoming the principal Taoist text.

公元前 551 年 孔子出生。他主张仁政、德治、忠孝的思想,一生仕途坎坷,后致力于著述和教育,开创私学,收弟子达三千人。据传《春秋》经其修订过。由其弟子编成的《论语》为儒家经典著作。

551 BC. Birth of Confucius. Advocated benevolent government, rule of virtue, loyalty and filial duty. Devoted himself to writing and teaching after a difficult official career. Set up a private school and had 3,000 disciples. Is said to have revised the Spring and Autumn Annals. The Confucian Analects collected by his disciples is a classical Confucian text.

公元前约 535 年 军事家孙武出生,所著《孙子兵法》对后世军事理论产生深远影响。

535 BC (approx.). Birth of the military strategist Sun Wu, whose work The Art of War had a profound influence on later generations of military theory.

公元前 475 年 战国时期开始,中国进入封建社会。

475 BC. The beginning of the Warring States period. China entered the age of feudalism.

公元前 356 年 商鞅变法。实行土地私有制,允许开荒,土地自由买卖,重农抑商,统一秦国度量衡。

356 BC. Shang Yang’s political and agricultural reform. Introduced private ownership of land, permitted cultivation of virgin land, freedom to buy and sell land. Agriculture was encouraged and commerce frowned upon. Unified weights and measures within the Qin kingdom.

公元前 278 年 浪漫主义诗人屈原投江自尽。其主要作品有《离骚》、《九章》、《九歌》、《天问》。

278 BC. The romantic poet Qu Yuan committed suicide by drowning. His main works were Encountering Sorrow, Nine Elegies, Nine Songs, and Inquiring Heaven.

公元前 221 年 秦统一中国。秦王改称始皇帝,强化中央集权,统一文字、货币和度量衡,建立郡县制,修建长城。

221 BC. The Qin state unified China. The Qin king changed his name to ‘the First Emperor’, centralized power, unified the writing system, currency and weights and measures, established the system of prefectures and counties, and started the construction of the Great Wall.

公元前 213﹑前 212 年 秦始皇下令焚毁《秦记》以外的史书及诸子百家的著作,坑杀方士、儒生四百六十余人。

213, 212 BC. With the exception of the Qin Records, the First Emperor ordered the burning of historical books and the works of various schools of thought, and buried alive over 460 Confucian scholars and alchemists.

公元前 138﹑前 119 年 张骞两次出使西域,促进汉夷文化交往,中原文明通过“丝绸之路”传入中亚。

138, 119 BC. Zhang Qian was sent twice to western regions on diplomatic missions to promote contact between Han and western cultures. Chinese civilization spread into central Asia via the Silk Road.

公元前 99 年 司马迁下狱,后受宫刑,忍辱写成中国第一部纪传体通史 《史记》。

99 BC. Sima Qian was imprisoned and castrated. He wrote China’s first biographical general history Historical Records.

公元 105 年 蔡伦改进造纸术,采用树皮、麻头、破布、旧鱼网为原料造出质地优良的植物纤维纸。造纸术和其后出现的印刷术、指南针和火药并称为中国古代四大发明。

AD 105. Cai Lun improved paper-making technology, using bark, hemp, rags and old fishing nets as materials to make fine-quality paper. Paper-making, printing, the compass and gunpowder were the four great discoveries of ancient China.

公元 132 年 张衡创制地动仪、浑天仪和指南车。

AD 132. Zhang Heng created the seismograph, the armillary sphere, and the south-pointing chariot (compass).

公元 219 年 医圣张仲景去世。曾穷毕生之力著《伤寒杂病论》。

AD 219. Death of the medical sage Zhang Zhongjing, author of Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases.

公元 427 年 陶渊明去世。生前因厌倦仕宦生活而辞官归隐,成为田园诗人。

AD 427. Death of Tao Yuanming. Weary of the life of an official, he resigned from his official position to live in seclusion, becoming a pastoral poet.

公元 462 年 数学家祖冲之创“大明历”。他计算出的 π 值精确到小数点后第七位。

AD 462. The mathematician Zu Chongzhi created the Daming calendar. He accurately calculated π to seven decimal points.

公元约 533-554 年间 贾思勰撰写《齐民要术》,总结农作物、蔬果、竹木等的栽培技术,及家禽饲养、食品加工技术。

AD 533-554 (approx.). Jia Sixie wrote the Main Techniques for the Welfare of the People, summarizing information about the cultivation of crops, fruit, vegetables, trees and bamboo, the rearing of poultry, and food-processing.

公元 605 年 隋文帝分科取士,科举制度诞生。

AD 605. Emperor Suiwendi introduced the imperial civil service examination system for selecting the best scholars in different fields.

公元 629 年 玄奘赴天竺取经。著《大唐西域记》,将大量佛教经书译成中文。

AD 629. Xuan Zang went on a pilgrimage to India. He wrote the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions and translated many Buddhist scriptures into Chinese.

公元 725 年 僧一行卒。曾发起在多地点天文观测并测算出地球子午线长度,编制“大衍历”。

AD 725. Death of Seng Yixing. He conducted astronomical surveys in many different places to calculate the lengths of the earth’s meridians and compiled the Dayan Calendar.

公元 762 年 诗人李白卒。其诗歌富有个性特色和浪漫精神,达到唐诗艺术高峰。唐朝还涌现出杜甫和白居易等著名诗人。

AD 762. Death of the poet Li Bai. His characterful and romantic poems marked the height of Tang dynasty poetry. Other important poets of the Tang dynasty were Du Fu and Bai Juyi.

公元 824 年 文学家韩愈卒。与柳宗元合倡古文运动,力反骈偶文风,提倡散体。韩愈、柳宗元和宋代的苏轼、苏洵、苏辙、欧阳修、王安石、曾巩并称为唐宋八大家。

AD 824. Death of the literary scholar, Han Yu. Together with Liu Zongyuan, he launched the classical Chinese movement, which opposed the parallel-prose writing style and advocated a direct prose style. Han Yu, Liu Zongyuan and (of the Song dynasty) Su Dongpo, Su Xun, Su Zhe, Ouyang Xiu, Wang Anshi and Zeng Gong were the Eight Great Men of Letters of the Tang and Song dynasties.

公元 1031 年 沈括出生。汇集前人科学成果,著《梦溪笔谈》。

AD 1031. Birth of Shen Kuo, who collected past scientific achievements in The Dream Pool Essays.

公元 1041 年 毕昇发明活字印刷术取代刻版印刷。

AD 1041. Bi Sheng invented the art of letter-press printing.

公元 1231 年 郭守敬出生。与他人共同编制 “授时历”,创制多种天文仪器。

AD 1231. Birth of Guo Shoujing. Together with others he compiled the ‘official calendar’ and created many kinds of astronomical instruments.

公元 1405-1433 年 郑和七次下西洋,促进了中外文化交流。

AD 1405-1433. Zheng He sailed to the West seven times, promoting cultural links between China and the outside world.

公元 1593 年 李时珍去世。参考历代医书并结合自身实践经验,编成《本草纲目》。

AD 1593. Death of Li Shizhen, who compiled the Compendium of Materia Medica based on his own experience and the works of previous generations.

公元 1764 年 曹雪芹去世。所著长篇小说《红楼梦》规模宏大,结构严谨,语言生动优美,塑造了多个个性鲜明的人物形象,达到中国古代现实主义小说的巅峰。《红楼梦》和《三国演义》、《水浒传》、《西游记》并称为中国古典四大名著。

AD 1764. Death of Cao Xueqin, author of Dream of the Red Mansions. With its broad scope, compact structure, vivid and graceful language, and many strongly delineated characters, it represents the peak of classical realism in the Chinese novel. Dream of the Red Mansions, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, The Water Margin, and Journey to the West are the four great works of Chinese classical literature.

公元 1782 年《四库全书》修成,收录中国历代古籍,保存了大量文献。

AD 1782. The encyclopedic Complete Library in Four Branches of Literature was compiled. It included ancient works of past generations and preserved a great number of archived documents.

公元 1862 年 京师同文馆创办。为清末第一所外语专门学校,以培养外语翻译和洋务人才为目的,后并入京师大学堂(北京大学前身)。

AD 1862. Jingshi Tongwen Guan founded. It was the first foreign language college with the aim of training foreign language interpreters and experts in foreign affairs. It subsequently became part of Jingshi Daxuetang (later Peking University).

公元 1905 年 在中国延续 1,300 多年的科举制度被废除。

AD 1905. The imperial civil service examination was abolished after over 1,300 years.

公元 1911 年 辛亥革命爆发,次年中华民国成立,中国封建制度结束。

AD 1911. The 1911 Xinhai Revolution. The following year the Republic of China was established, bringing China’s feudal system to an end.

公元 1915 年 新文化运动开始,陈独秀创办《新青年》,举起民主和科学的旗帜,倡导文学革命,提倡白话文。

AD 1915. New Culture Movement began. Chen Duxiu founded the New Youth magazine, raising the flag of democracy and science. The start of a literary revolution, advocating vernacular prose.

公元 1918 年 鲁迅发表了第一部白话小说《狂人日记》。

AD 1918. Lu Xun published the first novel written in the vernacular, Diary of a Madman.

公元 1919 年“五四”运动爆发。

AD 1919. May 4th Movement.


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